Origin: China

Family: Rutaceae
Subfamily: Aurantioideae
Scientific Name: Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) Citrus sinensis (sweet orange)

Folk Names: Love fruit


Element: Fire
Day: Sunday
Planet: The Sun
Zodiac: Sagittarius
Deities: Adrestia, Fortuna, Gaia, Zeus

Parts Used: Fruits, flowers, leaves

Magical Properties: Peace, friendship

Substitutions: Bergamot, mandarin, or any other citrus.


As well as cold-pressing the peels for oil, Neroli oil is distilled from the flowers, and Petitgrain from the leaves and twigs.

Part Used: Peels
Extraction Method: Cold-pressed
Flash Point: 43°C

Scent Type: Citrus
Perfume Note: Top
Scent Description: Fresh, fruity citrus

Aromatherapeutic Uses

Blends well with: Black pepper, cinnamon, clove, ginger, frankincense



Element: Water
Direction: West
Magical Properties: Sleep, weddings, beauty, sexuality


Orange blossom in perfume was popularised and named for princess Anne Marie Orsini of Nerola, Italy.

Part Used: Flowers
Extraction Method: Steam distillation
Flash Point: 68°C

Scent Type: Floral
Perfume Note: Middle/top
Scent Description: Sweet, lightly-floral scent

Blends well with: Benzoin, jasmine, lavender, sandalwood, ylang-ylang

Warnings: Use only in low dilutions.


Element: Earth
Direction: East
Magical Properties: Mental clarity, meditation,


The name petitgrain means “little grains” and comes from a time when tiny, unripe oranges were used for making oil.

Part Used: Leaves and twigs
Extraction Method: Steam distilled
Flash Point: 68°C

Scent Type: Spicy
Perfume Note: Top
Scent Description: Floral-citrus, woody scent

Blends well with: Bergamot, lavender, palmarosa, geranium, rosewood


Genetic research into citrus fruits have pinpointed orange as most likely being a hybrid of mandarin and pomelo (Citrus maxima).

Type: Evergreen tree
Plant size: 9-10m
Leaves: Glossy, dark green, up to 10cm long
Flowers: 5cm white, five-petalled flowers
Fruit: Orange round fruits, 10-15cm in diameter

Etymology: The English name comes from the Sanskrit name naranja.

In the Garden

Type: Evergreen tree
Sow: Spring
Light: Full sun
Water: Water regularly
Soil: Well-drained

Companion Planting: Lavender and garlic